Full body CT scan
Live 3D or 4D sonography
Digital OPG & Lateral Cephalogram
Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (clinical MRI) is a technique used to form pictures of physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields , radio waves and field gradients to generate images of the organs in the body.
While, the hazards of x-rays are now well-controlled in most medical contexts, MRI is still as superior as CT in this regard. MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis, staging of diseases and follow-up without exposing the body to any harmful radiation. MRI often may yield different diagnostic information compared to CT. There may be risks, and discomfort associated with MRI scans. Compared with CT scans, MRI scans typically take longer and are louder, and they usually require that the subject enter a narrow, confining tube.
Full body CT scan
What is CT scanning of the body?
Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body.
The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT scanning is fast, painless and accurate . It can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to save lives CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly for soft tissues and blood vessels.
Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You will be instructed not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand. If you have any known past allergies, your doctor may prescribe medications to reduce the risk of an allergic reactions
How should I prepare?
You should wear comfy clothes for your exam. You may be given a gown to wear during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewellery, eyeglasses and hairpins, may affect the CT images and should be removed prior to your exam. You may also be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing any metal underwire. You may be asked to remove any piercings, if possible.
You will be asked not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand, contrast material will be used in your exam. You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if you have any allergies. If you have a known allergy to contrast material, or ’dye’, your doctor may prescribe medications (usually a steroid) to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications generally need to be taken 12 hours prior to administration of contrast material. To avoid unnecessary delays, contact your doctor before the exact time of your exam.
Digital X-ray sensors are used instead of traditional photogenic rays. Advantages include time efficiency through bypassing chemical processing and the ability to digitally transfer and enhance images. low radiation can be used to produce an image of similar contrast to conventional radiography.
Instead of X-ray film, digital radiography uses a digital image capture device. This gives the advantage of immediate image preview and availability; elimination of costly film processing steps; a wider dynamic range, which makes it more forgiving for over- and under-exposure; as well as the ability to apply special image processing techniques that enhances overall display quality of the image.
Is digital x ray safe?
Digital x ray produces a low level of radiation and are considered safe, dentists still take necessary precautions to limit the patient's exposure to radiation. These precautions include only taking those x-rays that are necessary, and using lead apron shield to protect the body.The radiation from the x ray causes severe headaches.” Large doses of radiation can cause harmful effects like nausea and vomiting.
Ultrasonography is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce images on a screen, which allows medical providers to view internal structures of the body.
What Is Ultrasonography?
Lily is pregnant with her first child. Her doctor put in a referral for an ultrasound, but Patty has never had an ultrasound before and has some concerns. She wants to know what the procedure is and whether it's safe for her unborn baby. Lily's doctor explains that ultrasonography is a safe diagnostic medical procedure where sound waves are introduced into the body using a transducer. The sound waves bounce off the bones and tissues produce a black and white image on a monitor. The procedure is safe because it does not use ionizing radiation like an x-ray or CAT scan, which should be avoided in pregnancy.
How Does Ultrasonography Work?
The ultrasound image is produced by sending sound waves through a transducer by placing it over structures of the body. The sound waves are either absorbed or bounce back in the head of the transducer. These areas appear black on the screen. Areas filled with tissue allow some penetration and refraction of sound and produce a greyish-white image. Really hard structures, such as bones, produce a bright white image as the sound waves completely bounce back to the transducer. In pregnancy, this allows providers to have an image of the woman's womb. The amniotic fluid will appear black, which enhances the bones and tissues of the baby, which will appear white. The doctor explains to Lily that the ultrasound is ordered so he can assess how well the baby is developing, determine the gender of the baby, and detect any abnormalities. He can also measure Patty's cervix and ovaries.
Live 3D or 4D sonography
Ultrasound scanning is an important clinical tool in providing images of internal organs . It is also called sonography because it uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of slices through the body. A probe which emits ultrasound waves is placed on the skin after coating it with a thin layer of conductive gel, to make sure the waves pass smoothly through the skin. The emitted ultrasound waves are reflected by different structures encountered by the waves. The strength of the reflected waves, and the time they take to return, form the basis for interpreting the information into a visible image. This is performed by computer software.The advantages of ultrasound imaging over other imaging techniques include:
- Real-time visualization of the organs Non-invasive Doesn’t use ionizing radiation, which has been associated with toxic effects on the embryo
- Interactive, enabling the operator to capture different viewing planes by moving the probe
- 2D ultrasound
Traditional ultrasound is 2D, meaning it sends and receives ultrasonic waves in just one plane. The reflected waves then provide a flat, black-and-white image of the foetus through that plane. Moving the transducer enables numerous planes of viewing, and when the right plane is achieved, as judged by the image on the monitor, a still film can be developed from the recording. Most of the detailed evaluation of anatomy ,so far has been done using 2D ultrasound.
Further development of ultrasound led to the acquisition of volume data, i.e., slightly differing 2D images caused by reflected waves which are at slightly different angles to each other. These are then integrated by high-speed computing software. This provides a 3 D structure.
- The use of virtual planes helps in better visualization of fetal heart structures by allowing views not attainable by 2D imaging, possibly adding a 6% chance of detecting defects
- Diagnosis of fetal face defects like cleft lip
- Diagnosis of fetal skeletal or neural tube defects
- Less time for standard plane visualization
- Less dependent on operator skill and experience for diagnosis of common fetal anomalies
Volume data acquired may be lower-quality in the presence of fetal movements of any kind, which will affect all later planes of viewing.
- Expensive machinery
- Longer training required to operate
- Volume data acquired may be lower-quality in the presence of fetal movements of any kind, which will affect all later planes of viewing
- If the fetal spine is not at the bottom of the scanned field sound shadows may hinder the view
Even with the numerous benefits, the potential hazards of prolonged fetal exposure to ultrasound energy by using 3D/4D scanning for non-medical and unnecessary ‘entertainment’ purposes.
A Doppler ultrasound test uses reflected sound waves to see how blood flows through a blood vessel. It helps doctors assess the blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas in major arteries of the neck. The test also can find any blood clots in leg veins . pregnancy, doppler ultrasound may be used to look at blood flow in an unborn baby to check the baby’s health.
During doppler ultrasound, a handheld device is passed lightly over the skin above a blood vessel. The device is called a transducer. It sends and receives sound waves that are amplified through a microphone. The sound waves bounces off solid objects, including blood cells. The movement of blood cells causes a change in the pitch of the reflected sound waves. This is called the Doppler effect. If there is no blood flow, the pitch does not change.
Test Significance: A Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels. It helps doctors inspect blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas in the major arteries of the neck that could cause a stroke. It also can reveal blood clots in leg veins that could break loose and block blood flow to the lungs.
Colour Doppler Test Preparation:
- Generally, no prior preparation, such as fasting, is required.
- Carry all previous reports if you have undergone the procedure earlier.
- Carry your doctor’s prescription at the time of the test
Pathology is the study of disease which bridges science and medicine and inspects every aspect of patient care, from diagnostic testing and treatment advice to the use of cutting-edge genetic technologies and the prevention of disease.
PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT
Millions of pathology tests are carried out each year for adults and animals , if needed . Major advances have been made by pathologists, from breakthroughs in the successful treatment of cancer and the safety of blood transfusions, to treatment for inherited conditions and vaccinations against infectious diseases.
Pathology is not all about dead bodies
In a recent survey, over two thirds of the people thought that pathologists worked only with the dead. In fact, although some pathologists do perform ‘post mortems’, this is not a true representation of the breadth of pathology. Every time someone has a blood test, cervical smear or a lump removed, it’s a pathologist who looks at the specimen to work out if there is any disease present or not.
OVER 19 DIFFERENT SPECIALTIES
Pathologists have over 19 different specialists, with their respective training programmes and exams. Pathologists work in laboratories, in clinics and on hospital wards. You might meet some of them face to face, but many work with other doctors providing information that they need to make a diagnosis and decide what treatment to offer.Each of these specialties has a different appeal and combination of laboratory and clinical work. Of these specialties, there are four main ones:
- chemical pathology – the study of the biochemical basis of disease
- haematology – the study of disorders of the blood
- histopathology – the study of diseases in the human tissue
- medical microbiology – the study of infection.
Digital OPG & Lateral Cephalogram
What is an Orthopantomogram (OPG)?
An Orthopantomogram, or OPG, is a special type of x-ray that takes images of the lower face, teeth and jaw joints . The teeth are displayed in a long flat line. This x-ray is useful to demonstrate the number of teeth as well as their position and growth, and is particularly useful to assess teeth that have not yet surfaced.
Now there is another type called lateral cephalogram
A Lateral Cephalogram is an x-ray taken of the side of the face with very precise positioning, so that various measurements can be made to determine the current and future relationship of the top and bottom jaw and therefore assess the nature of a patient’s bite. This is particularly useful to plan any orthodontic treatment that may be necessary.
What should patients expect when they arrive at the practice?
During the OPG the arm of the machine will rotate slowly around the head but will not meet the patient. The Radiographer will instruct the patient to bite on a small plastic mouthpiece attached to the machine, which keeps the top and bottom teeth separated and helps position the mouth properly in the machine. For a Lateral Cephalogram you are required to hold still and bite together on the back teeth. Lips should be relaxed. The Radiographer will help ensure that patients are in the correct position before taking the x-ray.
How long does it take?
The procedure is very brief and completes within 5 min and is painless, and simple. It is very important that you follow all instructions and hold still once positioned.
Is there any special preparation required?
There is no special preparation required as such and there are no side effects . Once at the practice, patients will be asked to remove any jewellery or metallic items from the head and neck region, including any piercings and hair accessories, as these often interfere with x-ray image formation